Одним из главных в ландшафтном и архитектурном дизайне является японский жанр. Роскошно оформленные сады Японии ещё 13 веков назад стали итогом воздействия великолепия природы на сознание человека. Древние виртуозы воплощали с помощью деревьев и цветов свои нереальные мечты и глубокие мысли, свои гениальные выдумки и безрассудные затеи. Поэтому и сама территория волшебного японского сада является чем-то интимным, личным для каждого человека, местом, где можно спрятаться ото всех и просто наслаждаться неземной красотой природы. Рукотворная прелесть садов Японии представляется очень выразительной, естественной и настоящей.

Парки или сады в Японии делятся на три вида:

1. Плоский сад. Он бывает с водоёмами и без. В самом саду плоского типа пространство двора довольно обособленное. В нём возникает строение из пяти категорий камней и скал. Эта композиция стоит на плите, покрытой песком, по сути воплощающим море жизни. Категории камней и скал передают разные периоды жизни человека и разбросаны по территории достаточно хаотично. Примером такого произведения является парк-дворик Ройанджи в Киото.

2. Плоские с множеством островков и озёр. Обычно являются огромными комплексами, состоящими из подлинных природных построек. Совместная территория сада отделена от внешнего пространства и внутри себя разделена небольшими холмиками, пышной растительностью и островками. За счёт этого зрительно вырисовываются границы парка. Примером такого живого комплекса стал сад на окраине Киото – Дворцовый парк Катсура.

3. Парк с водоёмами и холмами. Территория в нём делится на части маленькими островками, что создаёт необычную живописную картину природы. Японские сады получаются такими пленительными и неотразимыми благодаря соединению природы и человека. Их красота складывается из гармоничных отношений мастеров с многообразием природных материалов.

Стили японских парков достаточно разнообразны. В любом из них кроется некий замысел или задумка. Тематика садов может быть абсолютно разная, например, времён года или парк камней. Те объекты, которые являются главной идеей данного сада, находятся в его центре, а цветы, кустарники и деревья занимают определённый порядок в расстановке.

Клёну место отводится на западе, чтобы лучи солнца на закате нежно касались дерева, освещая неземным блеском. А дуб по-хозяйски располагается в самом центре таинственного сада. Поэтому любое растение, будь то дерево или цветок, совсем не случайно растёт именно в том или ином месте. Тщательный подход к составлению композиции создаёт уникальную и обворожительную гармонию в любом японском художестве.

Жанров японских садов очень много, но элементы в пределах каждого схожи. Вода наполняет каждый парк, она может быть как естественным водоёмом, так и экзотическим прудом, а может стекать капельным потоком в ручейки.

Разнообразие деревьев в саду не знает границ. Там можно встретить вишню, орех, каштан, ель, кедр, пихту, тёрн – в зависимости от климатических условий города, в котором находится ландшафтное чудо.

Камни, валуны и скалы являются особенной частью большинства восточных садов, Их используют для построения пешеходных дорожек или для создания простых водопадов. В Японии считается, что каменный сад олицетворяет вселенную. Чаще всего на ровной поверхности возвышаются по три разных валуна, сравнимые с буддийской триадой. Места, где расположены камни и скалы, тоже выбраны не случайно. Многие японские сады оформляют заборы и стены из пеших мостов, изогнутых по всей территории.

Красота и роскошь восточной природы вылились в ещё один стиль японского сада – чайный сад. Огромный отпечаток на данный стиль наложила буддийская культура во времена становления чайных церемоний. Чайный сад был создан, чтобы принимать гостей и приглашать их к чаепитию. Спокойная обстановка этого пленительного места, действует расслабляюще и сближает людей. Оно повсюду усыпано цветами. Зимой распускаются камелии, весной – сакура, удивительные бутоны глициний радует глаз летом, ну а осенью выразительные кленовые листья рассыпаются по тропинкам. Поэтому чайный сад называют ещё «Садом времён года».

Главная мысль, которую хотели донести великие творцы восточных садов, в том, что цветы, деревья и озёра изумительны и великолепны, независимо от погодных условий. Разнообразные категории японского стиля несут в себе символику и философию, невероятную простоту естественной природы. Прелесть японского стиля заключается в гармонии человека с растительным миром. В любом восточном саду можно раствориться в нежном аромате цветов, проникнуться лёгкой музыкой водопада и ощутить великую силу многолетних деревьев.

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